Book , Print in English

Perspectives on personality

Charles S. Carver, Michael F. Scheier.
  • Boston : Pearson, ©2012.
  • 7th ed.
  • xxvii, 450 pages : illustrations ; 27 cm
Subjects
Contents
  • note: 1. What Is Personality Psychology?
  • Defining Personality
  • Why Use Personality as a Concept?
  • Working Definition
  • Two Fundamental Themes in Personality Psychology
  • Theory in Personality Psychology
  • What Do Theories Do?
  • Evaluating Theories: The Role of Research
  • What Else Makes a Theory Good?
  • Perspectives on Personality
  • Perspectives to Be Examined Here
  • Perspectives Reconsidered
  • Organization within Chapters
  • Assessment
  • Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
  • Summary
  • 2. Methods in the Study of Personality
  • Gathering Information
  • Sources: Observe Yourself and Observe Others
  • Seeking Depth: Case Studies
  • Depth from Experience Sampling
  • Seeking Generality: Studies of Many People
  • Establishing Relationships among Variables
  • Correlation between Variables
  • Two Kinds of Significance
  • Causality and a Limitation on Inference
  • Search for Causality: Experimental Research
  • Recognizing Types of Study
  • What Kind of Research Is Best?
  • Multifactor Studies
  • Reading Figures from Multifactor Research
  • Summary
  • 3. Issues in Personality Assessment
  • Sources of Information
  • Observer Ratings
  • Self-Reports
  • Implicit Assessment
  • Subjective versus Objective Measures
  • Reliability of Measurement
  • Internal Consistency
  • Inter-Rater Reliability
  • Stability across Time
  • Validity of Measurement
  • Construct Validity
  • Criterion Validity
  • Convergent Validity
  • Discriminant Validity
  • Face Validity
  • Culture and Validity
  • Response Sets and Loss of Validity
  • Two Rationales behind the Development of Assessment Devices
  • Rational or Theoretical Approach
  • Empirical Approaches
  • Better Assessment: A Never-Ending Search
  • Summary
  • 4. Trait Perspective
  • Types and Traits
  • Nomothetic and Idiographic Views of Traits
  • What Traits Matter?
  • Key Tool: Factor Analysis
  • Let Reality Reveal Itself
  • Start from a Theory
  • Another Theoretical Starting Point: The Interpersonal Circle
  • Five-Factor Model: The Basic Dimensions of Personality?
  • What Are the Five Factors?
  • Reflections of the Five Factors in Behavior
  • Social Traits: Extraversion and Agreeableness
  • Conscientiousness, Openness, and Neuroticism
  • Relations to Earlier Trait Models
  • Other Variations
  • Expanding and Condensing the Five-Factor Model
  • Are Superordinate Traits the Best Level to Use?
  • Traits, Situations, and Interactionism
  • Is Behavior Actually Traitlike?
  • Situationism
  • Interactionism
  • Other Aspects of Interactionism
  • Was the Problem Ever Really as Bad as It Seemed?
  • Interactionism Becomes a New Trait View: Context-Dependent Expression of Personality
  • Fitting the Pieces Together: Views of Traits and Behavior
  • Assessment
  • Comparing Individuals: Personality Profiles
  • Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
  • Five-Factor Model and Personality Disorders
  • Interactionism in Behavior Problems
  • Behavior Change
  • Trait Psychology: Problems and Prospects
  • Summary
  • 5. Motive Perspective
  • Basic Theoretical Elements
  • Needs
  • Motives
  • Press
  • Needs, Motives, and Personality
  • Motive States and Motive Dispositions
  • Measuring Motives: The Thematic Apperception Test or Picture Story Exercise
  • Studies of Specific Dispositional Motives
  • Need for Achievement
  • Need for Power
  • Need for Affiliation
  • Need for Intimacy
  • Patterned Needs: Inhibited Power Motive
  • Implicit and Self-Attributed Motives
  • Incentive Value
  • Implicit Motives Are Different from Self-Attributed Motives
  • Approach and Avoidance Motives
  • Approach and Avoidance in Other Motives
  • Motives and the Five-Factor Trait Model
  • Traits and Motives as Distinct and Complementary
  • Personology and the Study of Narratives
  • Assessment
  • Other Implicit Assessments
  • Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
  • Need for Power and Alcohol Abuse
  • Focusing On and Changing Motivation
  • Motive Theories: Problems and Prospects
  • Summary
  • 6. Genetics, Evolution, and Personality
  • Determining Genetic Influence on Personality
  • Twin Study Method
  • Adoption Research
  • What Personality Qualities Are Genetically Influenced?
  • Temperaments: Activity, Sociability, and Emotionality
  • More Recent Views of Temperaments
  • Inheritance of Traits
  • Temperaments and the Five-Factor Model
  • Genetics of Other Qualities: How Distinct Are They?
  • Environmental Influences
  • New Approaches to Genetics and Personality
  • Correlations between Genetic and Environmental Influences
  • Gene-by-Environment Interactions
  • Environmental Effects on Gene Expression
  • Molecular Genetics
  • Evolution and Human Behavior
  • Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology
  • Genetic Similarity and Attraction
  • Mate Selection and Competition for Mates
  • Mate Retention and Other Issues
  • Aggression and the Young Male Syndrome
  • Assessment
  • Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
  • Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder
  • Substance Use and Antisocial Behavior
  • Evolution and Problems in Behavior
  • Behavior Change: How Much Is Possible?
  • Genetics and Evolution: Problems and Prospects
  • Summary
  • 7. Biological Processes and Personality
  • Early Ideas: Eysenck's Views on Brain Functions
  • Incentive Approach System
  • Behavioral Approach
  • More Issues in Approach
  • Neurotransmitters and the Approach System
  • Behavioral Avoidance, or Withdrawal, System
  • Neurotransmitters and the Avoidance System
  • Relating Approach and Avoidance Systems to Traits or Temperaments
  • Role of Sociability
  • Role of Impulsivity
  • Third Dimension: Sensation Seeking, Constraint, and Effortful Control
  • Sensation Seeking
  • Relating Sensation Seeking to Traits and Temperaments
  • Two Sources of Impulse and Restraint
  • Neurotransmitters and Impulse versus Constraint
  • Hormones and Personality
  • Hormones, the Body, and the Brain
  • Early Hormonal Exposure and Behavior
  • Testosterone and Adult Personality
  • Cycle of Testosterone and Action
  • Testosterone, Dominance, and Evolutionary Psychology
  • Responding to Stress: Men, Women, and Oxytocin
  • Assessment
  • Electroencephalograms
  • Neuroimaging
  • Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
  • Biological Bases of Anxiety and Depression
  • Biological Bases of Antisocial Personality
  • Medication in Therapy
  • Biological Processes and Personality: Problems and Prospects
  • Summary
  • 8. Psychoanalytic Perspective
  • Basic Themes
  • Topographical Model of Mind
  • Aspects of Personality: The Structural Model
  • Id
  • Ego
  • Superego
  • Balancing the Forces
  • Motivation: The Drives of Personality
  • Two Classes of Drives: Life and Death Instincts
  • Catharsis
  • Anxiety and Mechanisms of Defense
  • Repression
  • Denial
  • Projection
  • Rationalization and Intellectualization
  • Displacement and Sublimation
  • Research on Defenses
  • Psychosexual Development
  • Oral Stage
  • Anal Stage
  • Phallic Stage
  • Latency Period
  • Genital Stage
  • Exposing the Unconscious
  • Psychopathology of Everyday Life
  • Dreams
  • Assessment: Projective Techniques
  • Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
  • Origins of Problems
  • Behavior Change
  • Does Psychoanalytic Therapy Work?
  • Psychoanalytic Perspective: Problems and Prospects
  • Summary
  • 9. Psychosocial Theories
  • Object Relations Theories
  • Self Psychology
  • Attachment Theory and Personality
  • Attachment Patterns in Adults
  • How Many Patterns?
  • Stability and Specificity
  • Other Reflections of Adult Attachment
  • Attachment Patterns and the Five-Factor Model
  • Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
  • Ego Identity, Competence, and the Experience of Crisis
  • Infancy
  • Early Childhood
  • Preschool
  • School Age
  • Adolescence
  • Young Adulthood
  • Adulthood
  • Old Age
  • Epigenetic Principle
  • Identity as Life Story
  • Linking Erikson's Theory to Other Psychosocial Theories
  • Assessment
  • Object Relations, Attachment, and the Focus of Assessment
  • Play in Assessment
  • Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
  • Narcissism as a Disorder of Personality
  • Attachment and Depression
  • Behavior Change
  • Psychosocial Theories: Problems and Prospects
  • Summary
  • 10. Learning Perspective
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Basic Elements
  • Discrimination, Generalization, and Extinction in Classical Conditioning
  • Emotional Conditioning
  • Instrumental Conditioning
  • Law of Effect
  • Reinforcement and Punishment
  • Discrimination, Generalization, and Extinction in Instrumental Conditioning
  • Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Reinforcement of Qualities of Behavior
  • Social and Cognitive Variations
  • Social Reinforcement
  • Vicarious Emotional Arousal
  • Vicarious Reinforcement
  • What Is Reinforcement?
  • Efficacy Expectancies
  • Role of Awareness
  • Observational Learning
  • Attention and Retention
  • Production
  • Acquisition versus Performance
  • Modeling of Aggression and the Issue of Media Violence
  • Assessment
  • Conditioning-Based Approaches
  • Social--Cognitive Approaches
  • Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
  • Classical Conditioning of Emotional Responses
  • Conditioning and Context
  • Instrumental Conditioning and Maladaptive Behaviors
  • Social--Cognitive Approaches
  • Modeling-Based Therapy for Skill Deficits
  • Modeling and Responses to Fear
  • Therapeutic Changes in Efficacy Expectancy
  • Learning Perspective: Problems and Prospects
  • Summary --
  • Contents note continued: 11. Self-Actualization and Self-Determination
  • Self-Actualization
  • Need for Positive Regard
  • Contingent Self- Worth
  • Self-Determination
  • Introjection and Identification
  • Need for Relatedness
  • Self-Concordance
  • Free Will
  • Self and Processes of Defense
  • Incongruity Disorganization, and Defense
  • Self-Esteem Maintenance and Enhancement
  • Self-Handicapping
  • Stereotype Threat
  • Self-Actualization and Maslow's Hierarchy of Motives
  • Characteristics of Frequent Self-Actualizers
  • Peak Experiences
  • Existential Psychology: Being and Death
  • Existential Dilemma
  • Emptiness
  • Terror Management
  • Assessment
  • Interviews in Assessment
  • Measuring the Self-Concept by Q-Sort
  • Measuring Self-Actualization
  • Measuring Self-Determination and Control
  • Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
  • Client-Centered Therapy
  • Beyond Therapy to Personal Growth
  • Self-Actualization and Self-Determination: Problems and Prospects
  • Summary
  • 12. Cognitive Perspective
  • Representing Your Experience of the World
  • Schemas and Their Development
  • Effects of Schemas
  • Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory, Scripts, and Procedural Knowledge
  • Socially Relevant Schemas
  • Self-Schemas
  • Entity versus Incremental Schemas
  • Attribution
  • Activation of Memories
  • Priming and the Use of Information
  • Nonconscious Influences on Behavior
  • Connectionist Views of Mental Organization
  • Dual-Process Models
  • Explicit and Implicit Knowledge
  • Broader Views on Cognition and Personality
  • Cognitive Person Variables
  • Personality as a Cognitive--Affective Processing System
  • Assessment
  • Think-Aloud, Experience Sampling, and Self-Monitoring
  • Contextualized Assessment
  • Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
  • Information-Processing Deficits
  • Depressive Self-Schemas
  • Cognitive Therapy
  • Cognitive Perspective: Problems and Prospects
  • Summary
  • 13. Self-Regulation Perspective
  • From Cognition to Behavior
  • Intentions
  • Goals
  • Goal Setting
  • Implementation Intentions and the Importance of Strategies
  • Deliberative and Implemental Mindsets
  • Self-Regulation and Feedback Control
  • Feedback Control
  • Self-Directed Attention and the Action of the Comparator
  • Mental Contrasting and Goal Matching
  • Hierarchical Organization
  • Issues Concerning Hierarchical Organization
  • Evidence of Hierarchical Organization
  • Construal Levels
  • Emotions
  • Effects of Expectancies: Effort versus Disengagement
  • Partial Disengagement
  • Further Themes in Self-Regulation
  • Approach and Avoidance
  • Intention-Based and Stimulus-Based Action
  • Self-Regulation as Self-Control
  • Assessment
  • Assessment of Self-Regulatory Qualities
  • Assessment of Goals
  • Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
  • Problems as Conflicts among Goals and Lack of Strategy Specifications
  • Problems from an Inability to Disengage
  • Self-Regulation and the Process of Therapy
  • Therapy Is Training in Problem Solving
  • Self-Regulation Perspective: Problems and Prospects
  • Summary
  • 14. Personality in Perspective: Overlap and Integration
  • Similarities among Perspectives
  • Psychoanalysis and Evolutionary Psychology: The Structural Model
  • Psychoanalysis and Evolutionary Psychology: Fixations and Mating Patterns
  • Psychoanalysis and Self-Regulation: Hierarchy and the Structural Model
  • Psychoanalysis and Cognitive Processes
  • Social Learning, Cognitive, and Self-Regulation Views
  • Maslow's Hierarchy and Hierarchies of Self-Regulation
  • Self Actualization and Self-Regulation
  • Traits and Their Equivalents in Other Models
  • Recurrent Themes, Viewed from Different Angles
  • Impulse and Restraint
  • Individual versus Group Needs
  • Combining Perspectives
  • Eclecticism
  • Example: Biology and Learning as Complementary Influences on Personality
  • Which Theory Is Best?
  • Summary.
Other information
  • Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
ISBN
  • 9780205151363
  • 0205151361
  • 0205219683
  • 9780205219681
Identifying numbers
  • LCCN: 2011014739
  • OCLC: 712644630
  • OCLC: 712644630